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Laconi et al., (2017) OR Edwards et al., (2017)

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34 Comments to “Laconi et al., (2017) OR Edwards et al., (2017)”
  1. Pashminder Kaur says:

    Blog# 6- Dark and Vulnerable Personality Trait Correlates of Dimensions of Criminal Behavior among Adult Offenders.
    Edwards, Albertson and Verona (2017) aim was to empirically verify the structure of dark traits and inform on the importance of dark spectra to understanding high-impact criminal behaviors. There were total of 493 adult offenders; where it was composed of participants from jail, parole/probation, community advertisements, substance use treatment, and word of mouth- which were quite diverse. In my opinion, this was a great way for the researchers to compare results based on different history of criminal behaviors. But it was also bias based on the chosen participants, who were mostly black and Caucasian. It would be more interesting to get results from white adult offender or from other race as well. In this study, it showed to be more effective when you have an inter-rater reliability- when another experimenter gets the same results as the other experimenter.
    One thing I appreciate about this article was that they assess the participants through couple of assessments, instead of one; such as, Psychopaths Checklist, Narcissistic Personality Inventory under dark spectra; whereas under vulnerable dark traits, they assessed using Lifestyle facet, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and The Personality Assessment Inventory. Not only that, the experimenter had the opportunity to look over the participant’s criminal activity through self-report and use public records to verify the reports. However, experimenters couldn’t get hands on some of the participant’s public report which may influence the results that were found- this can/may be one of the limitations of the present study.
    Even though it was obvious that the personality traits were related to crime types, it was still a great study to replicate! What I didn’t know was the differences between DT and VDT- where DT showed consistent relation with all crime dimensions- violent crime; whereas VDT showed more relevant to crimes against property and drug offenses, which relates to criminal behavior- and I found this quite interesting.

  2. Caroline Nester says:

    The Laconi et al (2017) article I found to be an enjoyable and informative read, and also a really important topic to research given the pervasiveness of online usage in modern society (the irony that I am posting this to an online blog is not lost on me). This work focused on the potential negative outcomes that can occur from internet use and the rising risk for problematic internet use and addiction – a topic that clinical psychologists in training should be particularly attune to, as this issue will certainly only continue to become more prevalent in the coming years. This article was very simple and accessible, but I found it to be almost too much so – the authors focused very little on methods and results section (especially compared with the other articles we’ve been reading in this course). I certainly found their statistical information to be somewhat lacking and unsophisticated. Moreover, this article didn’t address big 5 personality traits (or “normal” or “healthy personality traits) at all, rather it assessed personality disorder characteristics. Of course, as a clinically minded person I find this interesting and valuable, but I wish that the authors would’ve thrown in more than just one clinical personality questionnaire and added something like a brief big 5 measure. I imagine people who do not have personality disorders can also meet criteria for PIU. I feel that the article did a good job of reviewing the relevant literature of common psychological correlates with PIU, but I am curious if there are any physiological impacts of PIU and not just psychological, personality, and social implications. For instance, I imagine people with PIU experience negative effects to their physical health, whether it be from prolonged sitting leading to cardiovascular weakness, obesity, back/general pain, lack of sun exposure leading to vitamin deficiencies, etc. I am curious if there is a literature on this side of things. Additionally, I wish that the authors of this work would have explored what kind of activities the participants of this study were engaging with online. Were people compulsively using social media? Were they online shopping? Where they gaming? Does online pornography consumption fall into the category of PIU? This topic of this article is all very fascinating to me, as someone who anticipates the tremendous psychological impact (both positively and negatively) of the internet in the generations to come.

    • Ashley Olivera says:

      I completely agree where I think it would’ve been beneficial to know what sort of activities the participants were engaging in online. There are a variety of things one could be doing or looking up on the internet. Although, it is commonly known that prolonged internet exposure correlates to negative effects, the reality is that our world has been accustomed to constant internet use, not just for mediocre things like video games, online shopping, social media etc, but also as access to acquiring facts or news about what’s occurring in everyday life. Including that lack of information in the following study could’ve given more insight as to what specific forms of internet use correlate with the most psychological impact.

      • Tiara Newson says:

        That’s very true. Knowing what they did on the computer is really important. You are right there, are many different things one can do on the computer and how they can affect you. It may have been better to look into this further. People can even spend a lot of time on the computer talking to someone else, which wouldn’t have the same effect as on the internet not communicating with others.

    • Emnet Gammada says:

      Caroline, I appreciated your comment on the kinds of activities the participants in the individuals with PIU are engaging in. It brings up two questions for me: 1) Could the internet be serving another form of addiction (e.g., shopping, gambling, porn, etc). And 2) Does PIU serve the same neuronal mechanisms that are involved in other addictions?

    • drcb says:

      Good point about people without PDs also being susceptible to PIU (especially these days).

  3. Karen Abraham says:

    Laconi et al., (2017)

    This article is of particular interest to me, considering my research is on positive aspects of internet use, particularly interpersonal support.
    This quote especially piqued my interest as I am looking at online social support as a protective factor against minority stress:
    “Internet and **online social support** can also be used as a non-adaptive coping strategy to get away from real life problems (Senormanci et al.) and to regulate negative feelings such as depression, anxiety or loneliness (Munoz-Rivas…, 2010; Spada, 2014).” (emphasis mine)

    I looked intently through the literature cited for online social support as a non-adaptive coping strategy, as this would be excellent source data for my own work, but could only find generalities about problematic internet use without any specific mention of online social support. Laconi et al.’s assertion of online social support as being synonymous with non-adaptive internet use was repeated in the discussion section, with a similar lack of textual evidence. In the context of the rest of the article, I wondered if this specific phraseology was related to the many other translation issues from French to English.

    My specific interest aside, I found this paper to be very timely considering how much internet trolls clog up social media with hateful nonsense. While the PIUQ9 does not ask respondents to quantify that actual amount of time they spend online, it would make sense that people who use the internet the most are also people with interpersonal deficits. While I dislike the term “autistic fantasy” it also does make sense that having a more dissociative and consuming fantasy life that is used as a maladaptive coping mechanism would correlate with problematic use of the internet. Drawing from these findings I can imagine that having poor interpersonal functioning, depression, and poor coping strategies would make online interactions a great place to exercise these deficits without fear of personal consequence. I did have a concern with exactly how much I expected these findings to be just so, and so intuitive for each part (with the exception of the inconsistent self esteem predictions). They might as well have added a correlation for “lives in parent’s basement.” As this is new research, I’m curious to see a more nuanced or complex view of internet use behavior as the evidence develops.

    • Safa Shehab says:

      Karen, it is interesting that you mention this discrepancy of online social support being considered a protective factor as opposed to a non-adaptive coping strategy. I also thought about this in terms of social isolation, thought to be perpetuated by excessive internet use, and whether social connection through online platforms is in fact a less effective social support medium than immediate live interaction.

    • Caroline Nester says:

      Karen, I was really looking forward to your comment given that your interest (as far as research goes) has to do with the positive impacts of the internet/social media/online support groups. I too really disliked the term “autistic fantasy”. I wonder why the authors in 2017 chose to used such an outdated term? It seems sincerely counterproductive in being relevant in this day and age. I am curious about what term they could’ve used instead or how they could’ve expressed themselves differently…

  4. Melissa Henao says:

    The Laconi et al., (2017) study has been one of my favorite articles that we have read. Out of all the articles we’ve discussed throughout the course, this study feels real because its concerns surround us daily due to how essential the internet and technology is in our lives today. This study looked at participants with Problematic Internet Use (PIU) versus non PIU and compared their psychological and psychopathological variables and examined the relationships with PIU users and how the variables contributed to their PIU scores.

    The participants for this study surprised me a little because I thought men and women would have been a more equal number of population. Females were the majority of the participants for this study. I was also surprised to see that 70% of the participants were university students with academic levels from “below A level to A level”. I was a little confused to what this meant? When I first read this, I thought it referred to the “A” as in the academic grade. But the second time I read over I picked up on them saying between 1 and 3 years after A level to up to 5 years. I wish this part was a little clearer. Nonetheless, I was surprised that the majority of the population were students or workers. Made me wonder how extreme the PIU was among them to begin with if their interest use did not interfere with their motivations or goals.

    In regards to them mentioning whether PIU causes psychological/pathological variables or vice versa, it reminded me how much social media has taken over. I can’t count how many times I’ve seen videos or bloggers that seem just like you and me, saying that after having social media, they found themselves getting addicted to their sites which eventually led them to feel really unhappy with themselves because of the constant comparisons they were making. However, I also personally know someone that has depression and whenever I speak about them, I always do mention all they do is play video games online and have the psychological variables mentioned in the study. I would love to see more studies done to see which has a greater effect on the other, PIU on psychological variables or these variables on PIU.

    • Mahathi Kosuri says:

      Really interesting comment about the population being students and workers and how that relates to the extremeness of the PIU among this particular population. I completely agree with your comment about how social media has taken over- I think in a few years that studies will uncover a correlation between unhappiness and frequency of /addiction of social media use. From the people I know in my life who have gotten rid of their social media platforms, they report feeling so much happier and unencumbered.

  5. Hande says:

    Laconi et al.,
    I found this study interesting since it’s different than many of the articles we covered on our classes. I was also unaware how many studies were out there looking at internet use, personality and/or psychopathology.
    Initially, authors discussed the internet gaming disorder which is accepted as a condition (not sure as a disorder yet) and included in the DSM-5. I believe they could have elaborated more on that, for instance talk about the personality traits that are associated with it. Since at this moment internet gaming disorder is the closest thing to “problematic internet use”. Before reading this study, I assumed that problematic internet users are mostly adolescents and young adult males. But, the article found no significant gender differences. I also agree with the researchers if psychopathologies increase PIU or they worsen because of PIU is a whole other topic and would require many studies.
    Additionally, the differences between males and females in terms of different psychopathology symptoms were expected. We know that depressive symptoms are more prevalent in women. Laconi et al., also stated that symptoms of social anxiety and cluster C personality category were more common in men since they spent more time on video games, gambling and cybersex. Even though, researchers did not mention Big 5, I would assume neuroticism would increase as PIU scores increase and as scores decrease conscientiousness may increase.
    In terms of defense and coping, initially I found “autistic fantasy” problematic but after reading the article over again it made more sense. People with high PIU scores could use autistic fantasy as a way to deal with their real-life problems and could create a life that is closer to their idea of perfection on social media. On a personal note as a new mother, I had a short period of time, I looked at some mom blogs and thought how they could manage a newborn, household, their work life and still manage to look so well put together As we know the reality is very different than what we see on social media but for some people this could easily turn into an obsession and constant comparison which could lead to “autistic fantasy” and disengagement from reality.

    • Melissa Henao says:

      Hi Hande, I also really liked this study because of how different it has been compared to the others we’ve spoken about so far. You mentioned the blogs you’ve come across as well and that is something I kept thinking about when reading the study too. How people on social media always look so well put together but then months later, theres a new post saying how they had to take a break from social media because it was becoming “too much”. It really is interesting how social media is used portray their lives meanwhile behind cameras, they’re almost just like us.

  6. Emnet Gammada says:

    Laconi et al, 2017
    I found this paper to be eye-catching and relevant to our contemporary world. In therapy, we are often trying to understand the personality structure of the person, while at the same time addressing the patient’s symptoms and challenging their defenses. Thus, I appreciated the holistic objectives of this study. However, I felt like there was an overreach in their goals. They aimed to compare personality traits, psychopathology, defense mechanisms, coping styles, and self-esteem among users with Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and without PIU. The authors provide a thorough overview in understanding the complexity of PIU – as a coping mechanism for various psychopathology, exacerbating the symptoms, or causing symptoms. While, I appreciate their herculean goal of examining a multitude of variables with PIU – this study was very much exploratory in nature and did not illuminate much more than association they discussed at the beginning. These authors utilized correlational analysis and hierarchical regression which do not allow for the examination of causal relationships. It would have been interesting if the authors examined one of the psychopathological variables (perhaps personality traits) to examine the relationship more specifically. Examining the causal relationship would help to identify whether psychopathological factors lead to PIU or if they are aggravated by PIU.

    While the author’s describe their measures used for PIU, it wasn’t clear how this was being measured and the components of the scale. In their description of the authors note the use of the PIUQ-18, and that it encompasses three dimensions including: obsession, neglect, and conduct disorder. I wonder if examining further into what the individuals were using their time on their internet would have been more helpful. For instance, if individuals with PIU are using the internet for an online platform for therapy – could they still rate high on these dimensions? Moreover, this can also serve as a mechanism to explore the complexity of PUI. Lastly, I was confused about the IGDT-10 described just below the PIU questionnaire. Is this measure used in conjunction with the PIUQ-18 as a measure of PIU? This was not clear.

    • Katie Dana says:

      Emnet, I also felt as though the authors were biting off a little more than they could chew with personality traits, psychopathology, defense mechanisms, coping styles, and self-esteem ALL being compared with PIU- and trying to make sense of all of that together. It was a fascinating paper, but I think it could have been broken down into two studies within the paper to be more digestible.

    • Hande says:

      Hi Emnet,

      I also thought they could’ve done a better job utilizing the measures. It felt like they started with such promise but in the end it didn’t feel thorough enough. I would’ve liked to see more on how participants spend their time online. I assume psychopathology of someone using it for cybersex or gambling would be different than someone who is using it for social media.

    • Lexi Pritchett says:

      Hi Emnet. I also agree that the authors should have investigated how the participants spend their time on the internet. The authors had cited previous studies that internet/online social support is sometimes used as a strategy to regulate negative feelings and get away from real life problems. Engaging in online shopping, passively browsingt social media or actively communicating with others seem like they’d be completely different ways to regulate negative feelings, associated with very different psychopathology, personality, etc.

    • drcb says:

      About the IGDT-10, you’re right they weren’t very clear. The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a separate scale from the PIUQ-18.

  7. Katie Dana says:

    This post is referring to the Edwards, Albertson, and Verona article (2017).

    I found the introduction to this paper to be very enlightening, as I was not familiar with the dark triad, let alone the differential correlates within these spectra. Further, the two separate “dark factors” of dark traits and vulnerable dark traits were new to me. I though the authors did an excellent job of explaining these concepts in such a way that a person who does not have a background in dark personality traits could understand. In particular, I liked how the factors/dimensions of psychopathy and narcissism were broken down for the reader; psychopathy is composed for interpersonal-affective traits (factor 1) and impulsive-antisocial straits (factor 2), while narcissism consists of both overt and vulnerable dimensions.

    I did have some concerns, however, over with the researchers’ reliance on self-report measures for narcissism and borderline traits. While I understand that these measures are cost and time efficient, I wonder if participants with symptoms of narcissism or borderline personality disorder would be more likely than the general population to be dishonest in their responses. For other traits in this study, such as dark spectra and criminal history, methods were used in addition to self-report to have a more comprehensive understanding. For example, a life history interview was conducted to assess dark spectra symptoms in addition to the Psychopathy Checklist, and a public record was used to help identify past criminal behaviors above and beyond participant self-report. I think the study would have been stronger if all trait variables had been assessed with measures in addition to the self-report measures.

    • drcb says:

      “I wonder if participants with symptoms of narcissism or borderline personality disorder would be more likely than the general population to be dishonest in their responses”

      Perhaps not (especially for narcissists), since many see their traits as being positive.

  8. Daniel Saldana says:

    I enjoyed Laconi et al. (2017)’s attempt to understand the unique and shared variance between the dark triad and the vulnerable dark personality traits in relation to different types of crime. Of particular note, one of the most relevant findings was that “callousness” from the dark triad was really the trait that relates most to violent and physical crimes. While I appreciate the author’s discussion on how to make these findings and future research relevant for clinicians (e.g., tailoring the treatment according to subjective and objective measures of DT and VDT traits), I cannot help but shake off the feeling that the overarching theme may have been one of profiling. Yes, I understand that they cite limitations with the FBI’s categorization of crimes and that their pursuit was academic, but I think it’s a slippery slope. The whole while when reading this article, I kept thinking about neurocriminology. As we’ve discussed previously in class and in various articles, personality and accompanying behavioral predispositions do have neurobiological underpinnings—let’s think back to the BAS and BIS scales from this week. Let’s say that we did identify a one to one relationship (albeit this is probably too simplistic) between an underlying neural network (e.g., neurotransmitters, pathways, etc.) and a personality trait or “triad.” Would others really not use this information for something other than bettering treatment? What are the implications for predicting future criminal behavior and protecting the greater society? Will we adopt a preemptive approach to those people who have the predisposition to commit violent crime? I am surprised that the authors do not touch upon this matter at all, given that they do touch on how “at risk” individuals could be identified. However, in truth, they are saved from this discussion by the fact that both DT and VDT both only relatively contributed very small unique variance in all of the crime categories (8-18%). Of course, the context in which people find themselves is also important in determining factors linked with criminal offending. That is to say, if it were really that easy to predict criminal behavior (and I know this article is not about prediction), we would have done something about it already. Nonetheless, interesting read, which I think is grounds for further introspection as to where we want to head in research, not only as academics, but also as a society.

    • Daniel Saldana says:

      I made a mistake. I actually commented on Edwards, Albertson, & Verona (2017), not Laconi et al (2017).

    • Aditya Kulkarni says:

      Hey Danny,

      I too immediately felt that by the discussion section, there were inevitable ties to profiling to be found, especially given the rather thick narrative or “callous” criminal versus “impulsive” one. I like your point that, given the VDT and DT only account for 18% of the variance, it’s hard to build reliable profiles; further, your comment on context, brings back the situation relevant versus situation irrelevant discussion we’ve been having. I think clinically, the missing piece is whether there are larger clusters of ADHD impulsivity type, conduct and ODD that are acting for the VDT versus the DT that could be overplaying the variance.

      • Susie McHugh says:

        I had similar thoughts to both of your questions.

        Danny, I was also wondering where the recommendations for future directions were, such as what to do with this identification of an at-risk sample. The authors make no reference to proactive intervention strategies. While I certainly think that answering such a question may be owed a unique manuscript in and of itself, it would be useful to clinicians seeking information on treatment of personality disorders and traits related to criminality, to let this research on traits, or triads, inform specific treatments.

        Aditya, I also found myself wondering where DSM psychopathology tied in to this. I appreciate the authors’ classification into the triad systems, but I think I would have better appreciated the info if it was tied into the DSM construct that we are familiar with, and speak more saliently to existing personality disorders.

  9. Safa Shehab says:

    Laconi et al. (2017)
    This study is interesting in many ways, including its investigation of many of the factors that are hypothesized to be associate with Problematic Internet Use (PIU), but specifically because of the potential real-life applicability of its findings in many domains. For example, the link between PIU and depression was explained by the authors in terms of internet use serving as a compensatory/coping strategy, used to regulate negative feelings associated with depression, and potentially loneliness, as well as a medium for the avoidance of these feelings and as “escape from reality.” Similarly, it could be thought that PIU is being used as a “self-medicating” tool, whereby people in an acute depressive episode are more likely to use the internet for the immediate positive feeling and reduction of symptoms, but with detrimental long-term effects including increased and more prolonged depression. It would be interesting to investigate whether people whose depression has been treated, either through medication or psychotherapy, show decreased use or maybe no longer meet a PIU profile. This might provide evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. The findings related to depression also speak to some recent attempts by some social media platforms to detect users who indicate signs of suicidality and approach them with resources they can seek for prevention. Another clinical application of the findings of this study is that they highlight the important of asking patients about time spent online and screening for problematic use, especially in teens and young adults. On a broader level, many individuals use the internet as a large, if not main, component of their jobs (for example, bloggers, “influencers,” software developers, etc.). It would be interesting to investigate whether these kinds of careers make people more prone to developing PIU, or vice versa – if people with a predisposition to PIU are more likely to engage in jobs related to the internet.

    • Melissa Chavez says:


      I would also like to know if careers in the media industry are more sensitive to cultivating PIU or not. More particularly, what really triggers it. For example, for those who blog–is it the image that they are constantly putting out there? Does this image, in reality, falsely represent them and thats why they are are prone to PIU and depression? Or is it the addiction it self, wanting and needing to put out this image not only because its their job but thats where they find their self esteem is at its best.

    • Gabriella Robinson says:

      Safe your post makes me think of some of the thoughts I too had while reading the article. I too thought of the link between social media platforms like Facebook and suicidality, how some post suicidal messages that now have a report button that more attention is now paid to detecting and providing emergency services. Additionally I too think it would be interesting to see whether the relationship between how much one’s job requires internet use (amount of hours per day requisite in order to do job) and how often one spends on the internet in leisure, and PIU risk.

  10. Aditya Kulkarni says:

    Blog #1
    For this blog post, I chose to reflect on the paper by Edwards, Albertson, & Verona (2017), concerning the delineation of proposed dark traits (DT) (i.e. psychopathy, interpersonal and affective facets, and grandiose narcissism), from vulnerable dark traits (VDT) (i.e. psychopathy Lifestyle Facet, vulnerable narcissism, and borderline personality) in predicting type of criminal offense (against property, against persons, or drug-related crimes). When looking at their exploratory factor analysis of criminal behavior (Table 1) for how certain crimes loaded onto these three factors, I was confused as to why they loaded assault onto crimes against persons, when it loaded higher onto drug-related crimes; and why they loaded weapon possession onto drug-related crimes, when it loaded higher on crimes against persons? Fitting the latent variable structure is one thing, but seeing as these variables fit either factor conceptually, I found it troubling to assert that because of these groupings, we can infer that say callousness is predictive of certain crimes, while interpersonal aggression is for others, if we’re changing the make-up of the categories to fit some a priori narrative, especially given that the crimes intercorrelated to a moderate extent (r = .50).
    But on a positive note, I did find their discussion to be of greater interest to the discussion of criminal profiling—can we truly, based on the agglomeration of one’s high antagonism, elevated social competence, and low neuroticism versus another’s high antagonism, high neuroticism, and low extraversion, being to create serial profiles of what types of crime one would be likely to perform (their main hypothesis)? I believe, given these results, that their multi-method, monotrait method was interesting and there is certainly support to the claim that structurally, there are propensities, though I believe the DT to have gone in too narrow and thus why they paradoxically got such wide range crime propensities, as essentially these individuals are so outwardly expressive and social, that their entering into all types particular crime is an inevitable result of higher probability of being more outside in the world, compared to the VDT people who may engage in crime more selectively. I would weight repeat offenders in DT versus repeat offenders in VDT and see if differences emerge there. Clinically, I was curious that given the impulsivity facet under VDT, do indeed these individuals’ have an undiagnosed combination of ADHD, and conduct disorder at childhood, given that there is much literature citing that the impulsivity facet of ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder may share a higher-order latent variable. A rule out of prior psychiatric diagnosis may experimentally ground the results between the callous DT and impulsive VDT, though ecologically I understand that many criminals also possess psychiatric issues, and parsing that variance may be next to impossible for multicollinearity reasons. Overall, a truly interesting and ambitious paper, that I feel was just a little lost in preserving the callous criminal, at the expense of a more nuanced factor structure and rather evident exclusion criteria.

    • Daniel Saldana says:

      Aditya, it seems we are on the same page concerning the study’s link to criminal profiling. Your comment about whether or not VDT individuals have undiagnosed combination of ADHD and conduct disorder made met think of Moffit’s (1993) research on developmental problems that can arise from mental disorders in early childhood—given trajectories of antisocial behavior that are either adolescence-limited or life-course-persistent—that are compounded by not only deleterious environmental factors but also executive function deficits. I would not be surprised if it were actually possible to parse out the unique variance attributable to just DT or VDT.

  11. Mahathi Kosuri says:

    Edwards et al (2017) spoke to an area of personality that I see less research on in this class. Coming from a forensic psychology background, I have learned about personality through a “darker” lens, and was very excited to learn more about the part of human behavior that researchers tend to stay away from. This article didn’t provide much insight to that area. However, it attempted to tease a par the fundamental traits of the ‘dark triad’ (psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism) and the ‘Vulnerable Dark Triad’ (lifestyle psychopathic traits, vulnerable narcissism) in a sample of adult offenders. In order to understand whether some crimes are correlated to certain traits, the study focused on finding whether trends in crimes correlate with the two triads. The idea of this was very interesting, but when I was reading the article, I double-checked the date when it was written because I was surprised at the way the traits were being hypothesized in the adult offender sample. I felt as though explaining these “evil” traits were antiquated (even the name of the triads “dark triad”).

    Interestingly so, results of the study were only partially supported. The study hypothesized that traits, from the dark triad (such as callous affect and social dominance) would be more present in criminals who committed crimes involving the manipulation of others, and callous and violent crime. In addition, the study predicted that vulnerable dark traits would be present in “various forms of criminal behavior.” In fact, both the DT and VDT traits were seen in all crimes (in low quantities). My own hypothesis about why this is: When examining the factor structure, they found that the most common crimes were drug offenses (note: the predominant race in this sample was African American- pointing out some existing institution problems here), followed by theft, and assault. There was a lack of variability in the crimes. Knowing that traits such as psychopathy, are seen more often in Caucasian men more than African American men, I would be curious to how these dark traits would map out of they had a sample from a white-collar prison (Bernie Madoff type of correctional facility). I am wondering if these traits would be more present in offenders and if the DT and VDT triads would be more applicable here.

    • Pashminder Kaur says:

      Mahathi,I completely agree with the lack of variety in participants they have chosen. It would definitely be interesting to map out samples from a white- collar prisoners/prison. It would be interesting to know if those traits would be present in the white-collar prison and was curious to know if the experimenter would find the same outcome as they did now.

  12. Pashminder Kaur says:

    Mahathi,I completely agree with the lack of variety in participants they have chosen. It would definitely be interesting to map out samples from a white- collar prisoners/prison. It would be interesting to know if those traits would be present in the white-collar prison and was curious to know if the experimenter would find the same outcome as they did now.

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